Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

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Sectors Transportation
Contact Wilfred Pinfold
Trimet electric bus sunset tc feature.jpg Beaverton Electric Bus Pilot
TriMet purchased five electric buses thanks to a federal grant and support from Portland General Electric. These buses will operate on 62-Murray Blvd in Beaverton.
Electric Bus Cajon Valley Union School District.jpg Cajon Valley Union School District Electric Bus System
San Diego Gas & Electric Cajon Valley Union School District Electric Bus System tests the technology that enables eight electric school buses to put electricity back on the grid when needed such as on hot summer days. A collaborative effort between SDG&E, the Cajon Valley Union School District and locally based technology company Nuvve, this is the first vehicle-to-grid (V2G) project to become operational in Southern California, helping to advance clean air and climate goals while also bolstering grid reliability.
Eastside Crescent Transportation Alliance.jpg Eastside Crescent Transportation Alliance
The Eastside Crescent Transportation Alliance provides a governance structure for a transportation management Alliance. The Alliance lines coordinates public funding for projects like I405, Sound Transit, curved space, and traffic light coordination. It would provide the employer connection to those efforts in the Bothell geographic area from its life sciences community to SeaTac airport.
SantiagoEBus600.jpg Electric Bus Deployments in Santiago de Chile
An electric bus implementation program in Santiago, Chile, inspired by the buses in Bogotá, Colombia, began in 2014 through a partnership between the Chilean Ministry of Transport and two privately held companies, Enel X and BYD, an Italian electric company and a Chinese bus making manufacturer, respectively.

Electric-school-buses-v2g-.jpg BIDIRECTIONAL Act introduced in US Senate
A new bill introduced Friday by US Senator Angus King of Maine could unlock the true potential of electric school buses and provide stability to communities in need. The BIDIRECTIONAL Act would “create a program dedicated to deploying electric school buses with bidirectional vehicle-to-grid (V2G) flow capability.”
Bobcat 200.jpg Bobcat T7X electric digger
The new Bobcat T7X electric digger is powered by a 62kWh battery lithium-ion battery, which allows for around four hours of continuous electric-only running – or enough for a full day given the breaks usually involved in digging and loading work.
CASE electric backhoe.jpg CASE launches world’s first fully electric backhoe loader concept
CASE Construction Equipment launched the construction industry’s first fully electric backhoe loader. The 580 EV (Electric Vehicle) concept, dubbed Project Zeus, offers the same power and performance as a diesel-powered CASE backhoe loader, but with zero emissions and considerably reduced operating costs. Two machines have already been sold to US-based utilities companies, with the concept planned to remain exclusive to the North American market.
ECascadia.jpg Daimler Trucks eCascadia
Freightliner Trucks, a division of Daimler Truck North America LLC (DTNA), today unveiled the new eCascadia at ACT Expo in Long Beach, CA. Built on the best-selling heavy-duty truck platform in North America, the new battery electric Freightliner eCascadia provides customers with a zero-emission version of the industry-leading Cascadia and debuts its innovative safety and connectivity features.
Off-RoadEquip200.jpg Efficient and Connected Off-Road Machinery
This white paper explores both global and U.S. market trends that are driving new thinking, designs and technologies in Off-Road machinery.
ElectricFerries.jpg Electric Ferries Are Coming to Stockholm
Stockholm is set to experiment with new electric passenger ferries that could make commuting along its waterways just as fast as — and altogether greener than — driving by car.
JCB200.jpg JBC I9C-IE Electric Mini Excavator
The 19C-1E 2-ton (1.9-tonne) Electric Mini Excavator is ideally suited to construction and excavation applications within enclosed or urban job sites, or noise- and emissions-sensitive environments such as hospitals and schools.
LB16Down200.jpeg LB 16 unplugged: The first battery-powered drilling rig
The LB 16 unplugged is the first battery-powered drilling rig in the world. With the electro-hydraulic version, Liebherr presents the deep foundation machine with alternative drive concept. In doing so, Liebherr aims at providing the best possible combination of customer benefits, eco-friendliness and efficiency, as well as achieving new fields of application with Local Zero Emission.
LiebherrCement200.jpeg Liebherr presents all-electric truck mixers
Liebherr, in cooperation with Designwerk and ZF, have developed the first fully electric truck mixers with a drum holding ten or twelve cubic metres on a five-axle chassis. The first applications are planned for autumn 2020 at the customers Holcim and KIBAG in Switzerland.
SEAMTE.jpeg Midwest Transit Equipment & SEA Electric to Power 10,000 Electric School Buses
SEA Electric and Midwest Transit Equipment (MTE) have partnered to update 10,000 school buses with battery-electric power-systems, the biggest deal of its kind to date, which paves the way for a zero-emissions future for children's transport in North America.
Wacker Neuson EZ17e.jpg Mini-excavator EZ17e: emission-free, quiet, powerful
Wacker Neuson is expanding its zero emission range to include the electric mini-excavator EZ17e. With solutions by Wacker Neuson, an entire inner- city construction site can be operated fully emission-free and almost free of noise. Due to its specially developed battery technology, flexible charge management and efficiency output, the compact excavator can be applied in as many ways as a conventional model of the same class.
Repowered electric school bus drives from Brooklyn to the State Capitol.jpg Repowered electric school bus drives from Brooklyn to the State Capitol
On March 2, the New York League of Conservation Voters (NYLCV) held an electric school bus Ride & Drive event for New York State lawmakers and their staff to demonstrate that electric school buses are real and ready to transport students. Amongst the activities were rides on an electric school bus owned by Logan Bus Co which was repowered from diesel to electric by Unique Electric Solutions. The bus was driven 180 miles, in the winter temperatures, from Brooklyn to Albany for this event, and then driven back.
Solectrac.jpg Solectrac Electric Tractor
Solectrac electric tractors boast instant torque at 0 rpm, lower operating costs, and extended runtime with optional exchangeable battery packs without sacrificing the expected versatility of electric tractors, such as towing or lifting capabilities.
Volvo Electric ECR25.jpg Volvo CE develops full power of electric ecosystem with E-Worksite
A groundbreaking research project with Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) and partners to explore every aspect of the electric ecosystem is helping to deliver a complete site solution for real urban applications.
EPortEquip.jpg Zero-Emission Cargo-Handling Equipment
This report focuses on the analysis of the near-term equipment technologies with sufficiently developed commercial availability to allow for cost analysis, which primarily are electric yard tractors and hybrid lift equipment. Intermediate-term technologies that do not yet have substantial cost information available are discussed qualitatively, including electric top-picks.


The availability of electric and hybrid vehicles (EVs and HEVs) has been increasing in recent years, as more manufacturers have begun to produce and market these types of vehicles.

Electric vehicles (EVs) are powered solely by electricity and have no internal combustion engine. They are charged by plugging them into an external power source, such as a charging station or a regular electrical outlet. The availability of electric vehicles has been increasing in recent years with many manufacturers launching new models and increasing production. As of now, most of the major car manufacturers have at least one electric model in the market.

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine an internal combustion engine with one or more electric motors and a battery pack. The electric motors are used to assist the engine during acceleration and to generate electricity for the battery. They don't have to be plugged in to recharge, instead, the energy generated while braking or decelerating is used to recharge the battery. HEVs are more widely available than EVs and many manufacturers offer multiple hybrid models.

Both EVs and HEVs are becoming more widely available globally, as more manufacturers produce them and governments offer incentives to encourage their adoption. However, availability can vary depending on the specific location and the model of the vehicle. In some areas, a wider range of electric and hybrid models may be available than in others, and the cost of purchasing and operating these vehicles can also vary.

Electric Infrastructure

The availability of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure varies around the world. In some countries, such as Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany, there is a relatively high density of charging stations and a comprehensive network of fast-charging stations. These countries have been investing heavily in EV charging infrastructure and offering incentives for EV purchases, which has helped to increase the uptake of EVs.

In other countries, the availability of EV charging infrastructure is more limited. In some places, the infrastructure is still in the early stages of development, and there may be few charging stations available, especially in rural or remote areas. Additionally, the availability of different types of charging stations, such as fast-charging stations, may also vary.

In general, developed countries have more widely available charging stations compared to developing countries. However, many countries are now investing in EV charging infrastructure to meet the growing demand for EVs and to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels.

As of now, the countries with the most widely available charging infrastructure are in Europe, China, Japan and some parts of North America. However, the availability is still not sufficient for widespread adoption of EVs and it is expected that in coming years, more charging stations will be built to support the increasing number of electric vehicles on the road.

Electric Vehicle Energy Savings

Electric vehicles (EVs) can provide significant energy savings compared to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. The exact amount of energy savings will depend on a variety of factors, including the specific EV model, the type of battery it uses, and the efficiency of the charging system.

One way to quantify the energy savings of EVs is to compare their "miles per gallon equivalent" (MPGe) to the fuel efficiency of traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. The MPGe of an EV refers to the distance it can travel on the same amount of energy as is contained in one gallon of gasoline.

For example, the average EV on the market in the United States in 2021 has an MPGe of about 110 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent, while the average gasoline-powered vehicle has an efficiency of about 27 miles per gallon. This means that, on average, an EV is about 4 times more efficient than a traditional gasoline-powered vehicle.

In terms of actual energy consumption, this means that an EV will use about one-quarter as much energy as a traditional gasoline-powered vehicle to travel the same distance. This can translate into significant energy savings over the lifetime of the vehicle.

It is also worth noting that the energy savings of EVs can be further increased through the use of renewable energy sources to charge the battery, such as solar panels or wind turbines. This can help to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the vehicle and further contribute to energy savings.


EVs have several advantages over conventional vehicles: Energy efficient. EVs convert over 77% of the electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels. Conventional gasoline vehicles only convert about 12%–30% of the energy stored in gasoline to power at the wheels.

According to the EPA U.S. vehicle fuel economy has risen to record 24.7 mpg. A US gallon contains 130 MJ of energy. Dividing by 24.7 mpg obtains 5.26 MJ/mile. The EPA official range for the 2017 Model S 100D, which is equipped with a 100 kWh (360 MJ) battery pack, is 335 miles (539 km). Dividing 335 miles into 360 MJ obtains 1.08 MJ/mile.

Note: The 2020 Model S 100 long range has an improved permanent magnet motor giving the 100 kWh battery a 373 mile (600 km) range! This obtains 0.965 MJ/mile!

It takes 1.08/5.26 = 0.2053 ~ 20.5% as much energy to move a vehicle using a battery than using an internal combustion engine.

Note: The 2020 model 18.4% as much energy!

A gallon of petrol in the USA costs $2.83 and that takes a vehicle 24.7 miles or 11.457 cents per mile.

A kWh of electricity costs $0.12 in the USA. A kWh contains 3.6 MJ of energy. A Tesla battery is 93% efficient. So it takes 1.075 MJ of electricity to get 1.000 MJ to the wheels so $0.12 * 1.075/3.6 *1.08 = 3.87 cents per mile.

Note: For the 2020 model 3.46 cents…

A gallon of petrol releases 8.9 kg of CO2 for each gallon burned (2.8 kg). This is 360 grams of CO2 per mile traveled.

Using a wind turbine, solar panel, hydroelectric plant, or nuclear plant produces zero CO2 electricity. So this source of electricity has zero carbon footprint.

Crude oil is 86% carbon by weight and releases 46.4 MJ of energy per kg of fuel. Natural gas is 75% carbon by weight and releases 55.6 MJ of energy per kg of fuel and steam coal used in power plants is 78% carbon by weight and releases 29.2 MJ of energy per kg of fuel.

Thermal generators are typically 42% efficient making electricity from heat.

The carbon in the fuel just described is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, which adds the mass of oxygen to each carbon atom. So on a molar basis;

C + O2 → CO2
12 grams of Carbon plus 32 grams of Oxygen yield 44 grams of Carbon Dioxide.

So now we can compute how much carbon dioxide is released for each MJ electrical of energy consumed.

Oil Fired Plant
0.86 * 44/12 / 46.4 = 68 grams/MJ thermal → 161.8 g/MJ electrical → 174.8 g/mile
Note: for 2020 model 156.2 g/mile
Natural Gas Fired Plant
0.75 * 44/12 / 55.6 = 50 grams/MJ thermal → 117.8 g/MJ elec → 127.2 g/mile
Note: for 2020 model 113.7 g/mile
Coal Fired Plant
0.78* 44/12 / 29.2 = 98 grams/MJ thermal→ 233.2 g/MJ elec → 251.9 g/mile
Note for 2020 model 225.1 g/mile
Direct Petrol Burning → 360 g/mile (above)

So, NO MATTER WHAT THE SOURCE - NO MATTER WHAT THE METRIC- electric autos use less energy, cost less and pollute less than petrol autos.

Additional Material
When It Comes to Buses, Will Hydrogen or Electric Win