Resilience Hubs

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Resililence-hub-diagram.png Baltimore Community Resilience Hub
Baltimore is highly vulnerable to a range of natural hazards, including coastal storms, flooding, extreme heat, and high winds. These types of extreme events are likely to increase in frequency and magnitude over the coming years. These natural hazards, combined with exacerbated influences of climate change, create impacts that will affect the City’s residents, businesses, infrastructure, and natural systems, and threaten regionally significant assets.
Buckman Resilience600.jpg CIVIC school HUBS
NSF CIVIC grant to incubate the Federal School Infrastructure Toolkit for more resilience Community services. A pilot program with be developed with the BENSON school district in Portland, and woven into the urban/rural network of the Metro regional emergency response.
BannerEastPortlandResilientIslandVisionPlan.jpg East Portland Resilient Island Vision Plan
To execute the East Portland Resilient Island Project, RIP City Planning has partnered with Portland’s Disaster Resilience and Recovery Action Group (DRRAG), an organization composed of representatives from Portland Bureaus of Development Services, Emergency Management, Environmental Services, Water, Planning and Sustainability, Transportation, and Parks & Recreation, as well as Portland State University’s Institute for Sustainable Solutions.
Tanner Springs Park.jpg Resilience HUB - East Multnomah
Resilience Hubs are community-serving facilities augmented to support residents and coordinate resource distribution and services before, during, or after a natural hazard event. They leverage established, trusted, and community-managed facilities that are used year-round as neighborhood centers for community-building activities. Resilience Hubs can equitably enhance community resilience while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving local quality of life for our communities. They have the potential to reduce burden on local emergency response teams, improve access to public health initiatives, increase the effectiveness of community-centered institutions and programs.
Resiliance Hubs.jpg Resilience HUB - NIST Guide
Natural, technological, and human-caused hazards take a high toll on communities, but the costs in lives, livelihoods and quality of life can be reduced by better managing disaster risks. Planning and implementing prioritized measures can strengthen resilience and improve a community's abilities to continue or restore vital services in a more timely way, and to build back better after damaging events. That makes them better prepared for future events and more attractive to businesses and residents alike.
Resiliance Hubs Hawaii.jpg Resilience HUB - Vibrant Hawaii
A goal of the Resilience Hub initiative is to build individual capacity and community networks to be resilient and ready for anything. To get there, Vibrant Hawai'i hosted a Resilience Leadership Academy (RLA) - a monthly development program with curated content by local experts.
YachatsPlanProject.jpg Yachats Resilient Civic Campus Plan
A Resilient Civic Campus Planning process was conducted by the City of Yachats to convene the community and consider how renewable power could help prepare for hazard events and leverage improvements supporting community resilience

Stan Curtis.jpegDwayne Johnson.jpegWilfredPinfold.jpgJiriSkopek.jpegAnn Marcus.jpegDeborah Acosta.jpegHeather Chatto.jpeg

This chapter demonstrates how integrated smart systems that draw on a number of technologies, processes, and data can enable a community structures to function more efficiently for their main purpose as well as be prepared to serve as a “community resiliency hub” and/or “emergency shelter” as needed. Selecting a school as a community resilience hub leverages its existing function for families already charged with protecting children, employing vetted professionals, and communicating with parents, public safety agencies, and city government as well as embuing the school with some additional important functions and responsibilities to an extended community population. (The pilot for this project--using the Buckman School in Portland, Oregon--received a National Science Foundation Planning Grant in 2022.)

  • While emergency operations are run by highly skilled professionals in post disaster situation they lack outreach and community engagement in pre Disaster Preparedness Planning. Our objective than is to remedy this situation by designing an appropriate equitable system customizable to particular type disaster and socio-economic conditions of a community. Schools offer the best opportunity for community resilience hubs because their location is well known in the community because:
    • They are places where do people instinctively turn to, when the disaster strikes, if only to know their kids are safe.
    • Are places where citizens come together, volunteer, build skills, access community programs, become physically active and build strong and healthy communities.
    • Pretty much everybody in a community knows where the school is.
    • In times of disaster, schools also have much of the infrastructure and capabilities to serve as resilience hubs.
    • School have a fleet of buses and drivers who are familiar with community routes.
    • Schools have showers and toilets and gyms where people can shelter.
    • They usually have a kitchen and cafeteria, sometimes an infirmary.
    • There are playgrounds where additional temporary enclosures can be erected and there is a Parking for emergency services.
    • There is a historical precedent for schools as civil defence centers and even fall out shelters.
  • Suggested measures are grouped into the following categories
    • Community Disaster Management and Resilience Planning
    • Connectivity,
    • Communications and Public Safety
    • Site,
    • Energy/ Grid Connectivity,
    • Water,
    • Supplies,
    • Indoor Environment
    • Community Engagement
  • Specific measures are discussed under these respective headings below
    • FEMA’s twelve steps are a useful approach in evaluating the needs and risks of setting up the school as a community resilience hub and those to the community for which it serves.
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Reference Materials

Sun Schools

FEMA Community Lifelines Implementation Toolkit

WSDOT Kingsgate Park and Ride Transit Oriented Development Pilot

Emergency Management and Community Resilience Program Initiative for Community and Disaster Resilience

PGE Power Safety Power Shutoff Map

The light purple areas show the zones in our service territory that are currently at a higher risk for a safety-related outage. Click on an area in the live map or enter your address in the box to pinpoint your location. This map will update throughout the wildfire season with additional details and information.


Areas of Focus / Steps / Key Questions Responses to ? / Technology Identification Key GCTC POC or Group Resource External Contacts to Tap

(Individuals or Organizations

A. Risk Evaluation and Community Engagement in the Planning Process (based on FEMA) Jiri?

Step 1: Initiation: Scope the Plan& Create a Steering Committee
  • What challenge areas will be addressed by our plan?
  • What stakeholder groups should be surveyed to confirm and prioritize the areas of need
  • Who will be on our Steering Committee and what will be its mandate?

NIST Special Publication 1190:”Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems”, Vol. 1&2 2016

Skopek J&S:“ Safe (Resilient),Smart and Sustainable Community Development Planning”-A 12 steps

Step 2: Create a vision statement for a how this project can help to enable / strengthen a community to be a Smart, Connected, Safe and Sustainable community
  • What kind of community would its residents like it to be?
  • What are its current needs for resiliency that having a K-12 school as a community hub fulfill?

Step 3: What are the key hazards this community has or may face (prioritize by risk level: potential to occur and resulting impact on lives and property) and where are the current assets that will be used to address these threats? Where assets are, and where hazards occur, and evaluate the risks
  • Where are the hazards?
  • Where are our key assets to address threats?
Step 4 : Identify current disaster mitigation action plans and residual risk
  • What is the community already doing?
  • Where have those methods fallen short or lack ample preparation?
  • Where are the gaps?

Step 5: Identify prioritized disaster response goals, objectives, targets and indicators for each different stakeholder group in the community?
  • Identify each stakeholder group and their goals and objectives (we can group where there are overlaps)

Step 6: Conduct a Sustainable Community baseline assessment
  • What are we already doing? Where are the gaps?

Step 7: Identify Safe Community goals, objectives, targets and indicators
  • What are our priorities?

Nowcasting the Next Hour of Rain
Step 8: Brainstorm potential Smart, Connected, Safe and Sustainable actions
  • What actions can be taken?

Step 9: Evaluate each proposed action
  • What is feasible?
  • What will be effective?

Step 10: Select actions
  • Which actions will best fulfill our priorities?

Step 11: Write the Plan
  • Now let’s put it all together.

Step 12: Evaluate the Planning Process
  • Is the Plan solid?

Early Warning System (EWS) for Threats and approaching Disaster
  • Integrated alert system (wildfires, power outings, flooding etc.) with the right kind of privacy
  • Minimal viable stack of services for escape plan;
  • Evacuation schedule
  • Preferred route of evacuation (route/ roads, vehicles — with real-time updates)
FEMA: The National Risk and Capability Assessment (NRCA)

Nowcasting the Next Hour of Rain

B. Connectivity, Communication, and Security / Resilience Network with levels of government, other communities and facilities.

Ann, LAN, Debbie

Mutual link

Potential RENS / Public sector connectivity orgs: e.g., Link Oregon (OR), CENIC (CA), PNWGP (WA), et al.
  • Design of a resilience network as a digital infrastructure with a network of nodes
  • High speed internet broadband connection with local area Wi-Fi
  • Community connectivity for evacuees to communicate with their families.
  • Crisis and emergency communications equipment
  • Automation for evacuees to reserve resources online (used by students in normal times)
  • Way-finding (used by students in normal times)
  • Classroom technologies such as smart boards, large screens, etc. (used by students in normal times)
  • Automated busing and emergency pick up and people tracking/ attendance monitoring (used by students in normal times.
  • Smart speakers with sound masking or sound deadening technology.
  • Digital security cameras with advanced technologies (face recognition, anti-loitering, and license plate readers, etc.)
  • Security – card reader access doors tied to cameras which limit access to visitors.
  • Active shooter response technologies which identify event, shooter location and lock down of their location.
Cisco Network Emergency Response Vehicle (NERV)

Citizen band Radio communication

C. Energy/Grid Connectivity

A high performance (working) school building is proposed with a high quality building Roof, walls and windows of the schoolWhat does "envelope" mean in this context?envelope as well as high efficiency mechanical and lighting systems.


Mutual link

Specific measures include:
  • Integrated building systems
  • HVAC – smart building controls for temperature, humidity and IAQ advanced controls. Occupants wear badges which indicate if they are comfortable and adjust to meet their needs.
  • Lighting – LED color tuning and level reduction for circadian matching and daylighting to enhance learning.
  • Consider POE lighting.
  • Provide local building solar power with panels on the school roof and as parking shelters.
  • Provide battery storage for back-up power. This provides an ability to operate as an “island” and function as a microgrid when the electrical grid experiences an outage
  • The battery storage can be mobile in form of electrical school bus or parked electrical cars
  • Use of sensors and the digitization of the environmental data
  • Mountain/Electric bikes for local transportation needs
  • Use of the data to develop as a digital twin
Battery storage can be mobile in form of electrical school


HERE: is our Portland General Electric (PGE) support for school buses (battery-storage)

SAN DIEGO (Nuvve bidirectional charging)

SanDiego Gas &Electric (SDGE, Sempra) also has leading microgrid  programs including school-solar & bus/fleet charging

- Nuvve has a popular Bus-Fleet charging (bi-directional) capability.

CALIFORNIA (solar schools)

Building Energy Resilience in School Districts

Portland General (PGE) and Connected Communities grant

- Neighborhood Power, community grid program

- Portland Public Schools (PPS) "Project Zero" education program

- PGE Electric School Bus Fund

- Beaverton Community Resilience Center ...Public Safety program

Community Microgrids: The Path to Resilience & Sustainability

SAN DIEGO (Nuvve bidirectional charging)

SanDiego Gas &Electric (SDGE, Sempra) also has leading microgrid  programs including school-solar & bus/fleet charging

- Nuvve has a popular Bus-Fleet charging (bi-directional) capability.

CALIFORNIA (solar schools)

D. Water

Specific measures include:
  • On-site water management system and greywater resources to provide both clean filtered drinking water in times of emergency
  • Stormwater storage system to prevent local flooding and erosion.
  • Use of drought-tolerant trees and grasses with drip irrigation in planting beds only
  • Dual flush toilets, low-flow faucets, low-flow shower heads
  • EnergySTAR washers and dishwashers
  • No water-cooled process equipment
E. Site

A compact development footprint is proposed, Specific measures include:
  • Supporting transit use by emphasizing pedestrian connections from streets to building entrances
  • Erosion and sediment control around complete perimeter of site
  • Preservation of existing trees and planting of new trees to act as windbreaks and provide shade
  • Reduction of heat island effect using high SRI roofing
  • Use of drought-tolerant plant materials with minimal turf grass
  • Use of outdoor playground as a cooling centre with water features to combat heat domes.
F. Resources and Physical design

Specific measures include:
  • Gyms & cafeterias as temporary shelters and food support
    • Emergency storage of food & water
    • Emergency storage of sandbag & supplies, pumps (for local or school protection)
    • Emergency storage of sanitation supplies and clothes and laundry
  • Classrooms designated and equipped for medical support (staff trained accordingly)
  • Large tents that can create extended shelter areas around the school for staging emergency operations or temporary housing of people and animals.
  • Reconfigurability of the space depending on needs—either school with expanded lesson space, a gathering place for community, a temporary hospital, or a care center. Space be designed in a way that it can be expanded and contracted and reconfigured as needed
  • Agility of design (modularity) as to be upgradable
  • Access to nearby emergency assets like snowplows or fire engines. Ability to locate closest fallow equipment whether in nearby communities or in private-sector fleets and arrange to engage them (insurance, liability, licensing, permissioning, transport, emergency funding, etc.)
  • Automated threat detection and assessment of equipment needed to prevent / mitigate.
  • Access to mitigation loans
  • Temperature lows after 72 hours of disrupted power service
  • Temperature lows after 2 weeks of disrupted power service
  • Duration of emergency back-up fuel reserves.
G. Indoor Environment Phyllis/ Manfred?

A very high quality indoor environment with high air ventilation rates and IAQ monitoring. Specific measures include:
  • Air quality monitoring. Community alarms
  • Integration of mechanical & natural ventilation including operable windows
  • Density monitoring in case of pandemic
  • Low VOC interior flooring, adhesives, paint, and wood finishes
  • Daylighting and views from all regularly occupied spaces
  • User controlled lighting with multiple switching levels or dimming
  • Acoustic isolation of noise sources
H. Community Engagement and Operations. Deborah?
  • Staff training, emergency checklists, and annual fire drills.
  • Teaches, staff to have some fundamental training in some other disaster recovery areas or community service, or engagement areas.
  • Community engagement activities
Virginia Smart Community Testbed

I. Equity

  • Might be focused on underprivileged schools – but this could limit us with technology (students/teachers may need laptops, cell phones, smart watches, etc.)
  • Might want a school campus with multiple buildings (bridge from smart buildings to smart cities).
J. Funding options



Local Community-based

K. Other Considerations


CommunityResilienceHubs.jpg Guide to Developing Resilience Hubs
Climate change is happening now. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the number of billion-dollar disasters has risen significantly over the last ten years. As the ten warmest years ever recorded have happened since 1998, so have the costliest weatherrelated disaster events. As the globe continues to warm, extreme weather events will continue to threaten and impact communities, infrastructure, and systems worldwide.
ResilienceHubsShiftingPower.jpg Shifting Power to Communities and Increasing Community Capacity
In all U.S. cities, massive disparities exist between people and neighborhoods. Communities of color and lower income communities sufer disproportionate impacts of climate change and yet are often the last communities supported in the event of an emergency. These communities also generally have less access to resources to respond and recover. Achieving community resilience requires equitably supporting all members of the community, and prioritizing those who experience greater risk to their homes, their jobs, their communities, and their health.